All TS&E simulation software packages are developed in-house and are continuously updated and enhanced since the commencement of initial development over 35 years ago. The initial development and subsequent enhancement efforts were largely funded by oil and gas companies, research institutions, consultants, national oil companies, and not-for-profit organizations. In addition, concerted effort is made through our own in-house R&D and published literature to maintain the software updated to reflect state-of-the-art technology. Our software has a distinction of yielding high level of accuracy, fast computational speed, efficient memory utilization, versatility, ease of use and embodies certain notable Salient Features. They have been rigorously tested and beneficially proven in undertaking major reservoir studies and research projects around the World.

Listed below are most frequently used simulators, a more detailed description of which is available upon request.

SIM.GALIS: General Purpose Gas-Liquid Simulator is a widely used comprehensive and fully integrated system with or without a coupled pipe line network system. Subsets of this package includes SIM.COAL for coalbed methane recovery, and SIM.TRANS for gas transmission system as stand alone simulators. Additional features of SIM.GALIS is outline later.
       
Isometric view of a 3-d faulted reservoir
Schematic of a coupled system with gas reservoir, wells, and pipeline network
Surface Network System
Pipe network with usual surface equipment
Isometric view of a 3-d faulted reservoir
Schematic of a coupled system with gas reservoir, wells, and pipeline network
Surface Network System
Pipe network with usual surface equipment

SIM.FIGS: Fully Implicit Geothermal Simulators is capable of describing real World geothermal reservoir behavior with up to 3 components (NaCl, H2O, and CO2) and non-condensable gases. SIM.MAGMA is a subset of SIM.FIGS for studying volcanic activity and understanding the origin of geothermal systems with temperature and pressure range extending above 2000 Deg. C ( 3600 Deg. F) and 2000 bars (3000 psia) respectively.
       
Formation of a geothermal reservoir
Geothermal reservoir coupled with wells and surface facility
In flash plants, both the unused geothermal water and condensed steam stem are injected back into the periphery of the reservoir to sustain the pressure.
The first modern geothermal power plants built in Lardello, Italy is still producing after 90 years.
Formation of a geothermal reservoir
Geothermal reservoir coupled with wells and surface facility
In flash plants, both the unused geothermal water and condensed steam stem are injected back into the periphery of the reservoir to sustain the pressure.
The first modern geothermal power plants built in Lardello, Italy is still producing after 90 years.

The model rigorously simulates thermal, viscous, gravity and capillary forces, takes into account reservoir heterogeneity, geometry, variation in fluid properties, a host of different production injection schedules, surface separator, flow behavior in production string, heat losses from the under burden, over burden and side strata, and numerous other pertinent factors. Additional capabilities of SIM.FIGS include treatment of double porosity/permeability (fractured reservoirs) systems, and general n component flow (mass transport) suitable for tracer tracing applications. A more detailed behavior in areas of interest may be simulated through local grid refinement capability. The model is designed to be highly user oriented with key word and free format input data and reflects state of the art technology.

SIM.UBOS: Universal Black Oil Simulator is a general purpose black oil simulator with additional options for treating miscible, polymer and carbon-dioxide flooding.

SIM.UBOS is a three-dimensional three-phase model capable of predicting reliably and accurately the real-world reservoir flow behavior. The model rigorously simulates viscous, gravity and capillary forces, takes into account reservoir heterogeneity, geometry, variation in fluid properties, a host of different production-injection schedules and other relevant factors. Options are provided for dual porosity fractured and pressure dependent rock properties. The model is designed to be highly user-oriented and reflects state-of-the-art technology. The package has been used extensively used for studying a number of reservoirs around the world, including those of the Far East, the Middle East, the North Sea, South America, United States of America, and Canada.


Other simulation software in the TS&E library includes the following:

SIM.COM
is a fully compositional simulator designed to simulate three dimensional three phase flow with any arbitrary number of hydrocarbon components. Such simulators represent an extension of conventional "Black Oil" simulators in that rigorous calculations of interphase mass transfer are incorporated with customary multiphase fluid flow relationships. Thus, instead of treating the hydrocarbon fluid as consisting of an "oil" and a "gas" component only, the reservoir fluid is considered as a mixture of the molecular components most commonly found in natural oil and gas reservoirs (methane, ethane, propane etc. and other non-hydrocarbon components), and the principles of mass conservation and phase equilibrium are used for computing the changing compositions of the hydrocarbon liquid and vapor phases. By virtue of its multi-component treatment of the reservoir fluid, a compositional simulator can more accurately simulate reservoir processes that are sensitive to fluid composition. Following is a partial list where a compositional simulator may be advantageously used.

  • Natural depletion of volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs.
  • The injection of gas into volatile oil reservoirs.
  • Miscible flooding by means of enriched gas of LPG injection.
  • Cycling of gas condensate reservoirs with dry gas.

SIM.THER: It is steam flood simulator designed to simulate simultaneous flow of water, steam, hydrocarbon oil and gas under reservoir conditions, and preserves the phase-behavior constraints of the steam-water and oil-gas systems over the desired range of temperature and pressure. Oil is treated as two-component mixture to accommodate problems involving solution gas, inert gas or distillation. The principal driving forces, namely thermal, capillary, gravity and viscous forces are accounted for. Account is also taken of reservoir heterogeneity, anisotropy, rock compressibility, and heat losses from the under burden and overburden. Dependent parameters including the fluid and rock properties are treated as a function of pressure and temperature.

SIM.ENVS: The waste disposal simulator is a three dimensional transient mathematical model which accurately simulates behavior of waste injection into deep saline aquifers. Fluid properties, density and viscosity are functions of pressure, temperature and composition, and provide a comprehensive assessment tool. The model simulates single phase flow in the aquifer, energy transport by convection and conduction, and compositional changes in the aquifer fluid. It can also be used effectively to evaluate fresh water storage in saline aquifers, hot water storage in underground aquifers, salt water intrusion into ground water flow systems and other similar applications. Options are provided to treat nuclear leaching and waste disposal underground.

SIM.SNET: Steam Transmission Network Simulator SIMSNET (Steam Transmission Network Simulator) is a versatile and powerful tool for simulating flow of steam and associated energy through a set of interconnected network of pipes, pipe fittings and elbows, regulators or valves, power plants, wells and tank type geothermal reservoirs. It predicts pressure drops, temperature profile, mass and energy flow rates, quality of steam, available BTU/watts at power plants, and other pertinent engineering parameters. A post-processing module can display the results pictorially including the pipeline layout, pipe sizes, lengths, elevations, flow rates, pressure, enthalpy, and other desired parameters.

SIMSNET accounts for losses due to friction, changes in kinetic energy, variation in elevations, heat losses to surrounding media, condensate withdrawal at designated nodes, and rigorously solves for mass and energy balances at each node preserving the thermodynamic behavior of steam water system. The Simulator handles with equal ease and reliability any number of boundary conditions (specified pressure or rate) and require no special user directives for complex loops or sub-loops.

The wells connecting to pipe network system may have an arbitrary number of flow strings of different diameters and lengths. Pressure drop in the reservoirs may be calculated as designated pressure decline curve or by P/Z type depletion.

SIMSNET uses built in thermodynamic properties of steam and water. Nonlinear mass and energy balance equations at each node are linearized employing Newton Raphson procedure and the resulting matrix is solved by direct sparse matrix technique where sparsity of the matrix is fully exploited to maximize the computing efficiency.




SIM.GALIS: A Fully Integrated Gas Simulator

Fully Integrated Solution to Gas Production and Distribution System including Gas Reservoirs, Flow through Wells, Pipeline Transmission, and Gas Processing Plants.

Applications:

  • Gas-Water, Gas Condensates and Dry Gas reservoirs
  • Underground Gas Storage Operations
  • Multiphase and single phase flow in horizontal, inclined and vertical wells
  • Complex pipeline network and gathering systems including compressors, regulators, valves, any number of supply/delivery points
  • Coalbed Methane Recovery in fractured dual permeability/porosity reservoirs
  • Transient Well and Interference Tests
  • Coupled Reservoir, wells and Pipeline Network as well as Decoupled Reservoirs and Transmission Systems
  • Tracking of multi-gases including their calorific values

Partial List of Features and Functions:

  • Any Orthogonal Grid Geometry including Hybrid Grid-(Cartesian and cylindrical)
  • Single and Dual Porosity and Permeability including Multiple Interacting Continua (MINC) and spatially varying combination of them
  • Horizontal, Deviated and Vertical Wells with Multiple Flow String Configuration
  • Mixing of Gases and tracking them including Phenomena of (a) Molecular Diffusion of Gases, and (b) Hydrodynamic Dispersion
  • Calorific value (BTU Content) of Mixed Gases (injected and producing) in Reservoir, Wells and Pipeline systems
  • Visualization and Animation of Reservoir and Pipe Network, and x-y plots
  • Graphical User Interface (GUI) for easy input data and data checks
  • Vertical Equilibrium for Gas-Water in the user designated grid blocks or regions
  • A Choice of Robust Linear Equation Solvers including D4-Direct, Nested Factorization, Stabilized Bi-conjugate Gradient, Generalized Minimum Residual (GMR) and Sparse Matrix Techniques with Gaussian Elimination Methods
  • Implicit or IMPES Formulation with option for TVD to mitigate numerical dispersion
  • Adsorption/Desorption for Coal bed Gas Recovery
  • Well bore Storage, Turbulence and Skin effects for Transient Well Test Designs
  • Complex loops and multi-compressors in a Gas Transmission Network
  • Numerous Built-in Correlations and Default Values for Gas Properties, Relative Permeability Characteristics, Solution Method, Turbulence Coefficients, Relative Permeability Hysteresis Parameters, and others
  • Multiple Reservoirs Connected to One or More Pipeline Systems
  • Well Production Based on a Variety of Well Constraints including Bottom Hole, Wellhead and Delivery Point Pressures, and Gathering Station rate Constraints. Well Parameters also allow specifications for ā€˜cā€™ and ā€˜nā€™ for turbulent flow
 
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